As the oldest extant
classic of traditional Chinese medicine, its first word-for-word
translation from Chinese to English is published by Beijing Foreign
Languages Press, the first-rate publishing house in China responsible for
introducing Chinese classic culture to the Western world.
Compiled roughly two thousand years ago, this great work forms the
theoretical basis of TCM. As TCM's history developed over the millennia,
nearly all significant medical works benefited from the enlightenment of
this unparalleled book. Covering not only medicine but also philosophy,
sociology, anthropology, military strategy, mathematics, astronomy,
meteorology, ecology, The Medical Classic of the Yellow Emperor
demonstrates that even in ancient times, people accomplished scientific
achievements that are applicable, relevant, and innovative even in modern
times. The world-famous medical masters and saints in the history of TCM
such as Zhang zhongjing, Hua Tuo, Sun Simiao and Li Shizhen, who lived
hundreds to thousands years ago, are greatly enlightened by the academic
thoughts of The Medical Classic of the Yellow Emperor. All of them
researched into this great book deeply and mastered the essence of this
book and thus became the most famous practitioners of TCM in Chinese
Therefore, more and more western scholars
from all realms are
attracted to research into this glorious work.
The Chinese original of this English translation is the currently
universal textbook of TCM universities and colleges in China. Extracting
the essence of The Medical Classic of the Yellow Emperor, this well-edited
English version is rendered in word-for-word pattern for the purpose of
offering a perfect access to the Chinese sources. It is exciting to
provide, through this faithful translation, an opportunity to more easily
understand Chinese thought for foreign friends with an interest in TCM or
translator is Dr. Zhu Ming. Born at Huaihua of Hunan province,
China in 1968, he graduated from Hunan College of Traditional Chinese Medicine in
1991 and has been clinically practicing TCM ever since. His clinical focus is on
the treatment of difficult and chronic diseases, influenced by my father's long
clinical experience. Working assiduously for eight years, he has successfully translated The Medical Classic of the
Yellow Emperor into English.
This book is
available in more than 100 countries over the world, including the American bookstore Redwing
Company the biggest one in the world focusing on alternative medicine, the biggest
online bookstore in the world Amazon.com
in the USA,
Wall Books&Art in Los Angeles, the Cypress
Book Company in San Francisco, the World
Prostatitis Foundation, the American
Medica Inc., the British
Splut Health Site, the Australian
China Books Company in Melbourne, the Canadian
Health Information Resource, the Lau
Clinic Bookstore in Poland, the Euronet
biggest bookstore in China, Beijing Xidan Bookstore, Guiling Bookstore,
Shanghai Xinhua Bookstore, Jinan
Huiwen Bookstore, etc.
I am writing to you in the hope that you will be so kind as to help me
with couple with my questions, that I had after reading your translation
of Nei Jing in English. Nice book, good job!!!
Could you tell me please why it is so
big difference between even Chinese editions of Nei Jing? And you have
an article 6.2.5 of Chapter 17 where you describe diagnostic using
cubital skin, which I never saw before in other editions. Do you use
this diagnostic and how useful it is?
Thanks for your soon answer
Dr. Igor Simonov
NZ Register of Acupuncturists
Dear Dr. Zhu,
This is Guo Yufeng from Shanghai.
I happened to come across your homepage, and I was amazed to find out
the English translation of Huang Di Nei Jing.
I was trained as a professional interpreter, and now I am operating a
TCM clinic in the city.
I admire your English so much that I'd love to have a copy of it. Yet I
have searched over both the net and the physical bookstores in vain. I
wonder if you can send me a copy, and quite beyond the book, I would
like to welcome you in Shanghai to have a discussion as to how we can
restore TCM to its past glory, a place it deserved.
Expecting your reply.
Best and cheers,
Dear Dr. Zhu Ming,
Excuse me, if I offended you
Reading and translating of your book (into Russian) has given to me
I have found in it answers to many my questions.
Especially valuable, in this plan your commentaries and the annotations
to the original text of the treatise.
Also I have looked your site
www.tcmtreatment.com and have found
there a lot of very valuable information, including on plant drugs.
It is a little about myself:
I the doctor, am engaged acupuncture 5 years.
Now I work in Regional clinical hospital of Krasnoyarsk (Eastern
Hope we shall collaborate with you and further
Yours faithfully, Dmitry Timofeev
Dr. Bill Lauman of Saginaw Valley State University in Michigan, USA,
likes The Medical Classic of the Yellow Emperor.
Medical Classic Of The Yellow Emperor
Produced by Beijing Foreign Languages Press
Translated by Zhu Ming
the rapid expansion of China's policy of openness, cultural exchange
between the West and East is being greatly stimulated. Traditional
Chinese medicine (TCM), as a distinctive element of East Asian
civilization and one of the great medical traditions of the world, is
attracting more and more interest. Awareness of acupuncture has spread
widely in the Western society and TCM gains recognition daily. Nowadays,
highly advanced Western medicine is facing a kind of great Green
Revolution that aims at producing more natural drugs and medical
techniques without noxious side-effects. In contrast, millennia old TCM,
which successfully united all scientific achievements in ancient times,
has failed to absorb modern advanced technology in recent times and is
confronted with a great challenge of modernization. Therefore, it is
inevitable that ancient East Asian medical understanding will combine
with modern Western medical knowledge to form a glorious whole, which
our contemporaries and generations to come will appreciate as a great
contribution to the cause of human health.
In Western countries scholars and physicians are engaged in systematic
and comprehensive study of TCM and have made rapid progress both in
theory and in practice. Naturally, many of these researchers into TCM
are interested in knowing its earliest sources, which have been rendered
mysterious and enticing by their inaccessibility. It is unfortunate, but
there are three significant cultural and linguistic barriers to easy
understanding: between English language and Chinese language, between
standard Chinese and TCM technical terminology, and between modern TCM
terminology and archaic medical Chinese. Few of the westerners who have
tried to stride over the three wide gaps have been able to successfully
approach this attractive and exotic medical field. Hence, more culture
brokers are needed who are sufficiently proficient in TCM, on archaic
medical Chinese and in English, so that more Western people can receive
adequate information about the origins of TCM.
The Medical Classic of the Yellow Emperor (Huang Di Nei Jing), which is
also translated by Ilza Veith as The Yellow Emperor's Classic of
Internal Medicine (1966), is the oldest extant classic of TCM and the
source of theory for this independent medical system. This book is
written in the form of a dialogue in which the Yellow Emperor (the
legendary first ancestor of the Chinese nation) discusses medicine with
his ministers and some well-known doctors. No student of TCM in China
could escape knowing about this text.
I made my decision to translate The Medical Classic of the Yellow
Emperor into English after I became a doctor of TCM from the Hunan
College of Traditional Chinese Medicine and had undertaken clinical
practice of TCM for many years. Fearing that my translation would do
disservice to this great text, I proceeded meticulously in almost every
step of my work, yet it was pushed forward slowly but surely by my
loyalty to, and enthusiasm for, the masterpiece.
The Original Version
A perfect version of the original text is a precondition for a
satisfactorily translated product. I choose the textbook version of The
Medical Classic of the Yellow Emperor as my original. It was edited by
the Compiling and Checking Committee of Textbooks of State Universities
and Colleges organized by the Ministry of Public Health of the People's
Republic of China in 1982. The chief editor, Dr. Cheng Shide, is from
Beijing TCM College. This textbook explains the original articles of The
Medical Classic of the Yellow Emperor in a scientific, orderly and
concise way. It is the unquestionably authoritative and consummate
source. Annotations that quote explanatory notes of many famous ancient
medical masters are presented as concisely as possible, while some
necessary explanations are added.
Structure of This Book
The structure of this book is to present the translations of an original
article, or a section of dialogue, from The Medical Classic of the
Yellow Emperor, followed by annotations and commentaries. This stable
structure is intended to constantly clarify the reader's understanding.
Sometimes, the original article and the annotations may convey a same
concept in two different forms of expression. For example, the original
article says, "Open the ghost gate and cleanse the clear
fu-organ," while the annotation which follows says,
"Diaphoresis and diuresis." The reason for the significant
difference between the translation of the original article and the
annotation is that, while words "diaphoresis and diuresis"
present a readily recognizable gloss in Western medical terminology, a
literal translation of the original text is closer to the expression
accepted by practitioners of TCM in China and comes closer to reflecting
the real meaning in the context of TCM conceptualization.
Most of the original articles of The Medical Classic of the Yellow
Emperor are quite terse. Hence, in order to make the translations of
each article as close as possible to the Chinese language source, the
annotations making the concepts and sentences more complete and clearer,
and the commentaries summing up the gist of the articles, are usually
Style of Translation
Literal translation, freely conveying factual information, is dependable
and is the technique of translation adopted here. Many books have been
successfully translated word-for-word into English and published in
order to introduce TCM to the world.
However, in an ordinary situation when an ancient classic of TCM is
translated, dozens of experts from many fields take part in the work.
First, professors of TCM interpret the book into current Chinese; then,
professors of Western medicine, historians, linguists, anthropologists,
etc., who have profound knowledge of English and Chinese, but not of TCM,
translate this book into English. So, it is not difficult for us to
imagine that errors due to different modes of thinking may occur. The
different modes of thinking, different word usages, different styles and
skills of translation, etc., may perplex readers. Western readers will
frequently find inconsistencies in identifying concepts, just as if a
man has five different names. The mistakes in disease names used in
Western medicine will twist the facts fundamentally and confuse readers,
especially among scholars of Western medicine. Thus, to translate
verbatim is the best but hardest choice.
The principle of literal translation penetrates the entire proceeding of
my work. Unavoidably, some words have to be added or deleted on some
necessary occasions in order to offer a correct and full understanding.
All terms and concepts of TCM originate from the daily speech and
activities of working people. It is easy to find their equivalents in
English. English is based on people's shared experience in living, just
as Chinese is. Therefore, English equivalents for terms in TCM can be
determined. Generally speaking, any word that clearly conveys the true
meaning of a Chinese term is acceptable. However, both Chinese and
English have many synonyms, so a reliable and relatively stable system
of terms is required. It is a matter for rejoicing that the system of
terms is becoming more and more mature now in a universally recognized
way after the efforts of many people from China and abroad. I have
consulted many English books about TCM published in China and overseas.
Of these, I tend to favor the work of the English enthusiast, Dr. Nigel
Wiseman, who has made insightful and marvelous explorations in
establishing the terminological system of TCM.
It is worthwhile to mention that it is not wise for us to try to equate
the terms of TCM to those of Western medicine, inasmuch as it usually
leads to conceptual mistakes. In general, the anatomical terms are
compatible. We had better avoid using the terms of Western medicine in
TCM, especially using disease names, which often risks committing fatal
mistakes, because TCM and Western medicine research the same entity from
utterly different angles.
I am confident that no expression in this book will seem too thorny when
a foreign reader has grasped terms that frequently appear, such as qi ,
yin, yang, zang-organ, fu-organ, triple-warmer, nutritive qi, and
defensive qi. A lucid English version, which even a foreigner without
any knowledge of TCM and Chinese culture can understand with ease, is
what I have done my utmost to produce. As we all know, science has no
borders. TCM, the great treasure, should belong to the world's people. I
am sure the comprehensive exportation of TCM will bring a brighter
future to the health cause of the human race.
Many sincere thanks are extended to Prof. Tong Yao and Prof. Yao Yong,
working in Shanghai University of TCM now, for their instructive advice
for modification. I also want to express my special gratitude to the
international scholars of TCM, Prof. Stephen R. Smith of
Wittenberg University in Springfield, Ohio, USA, Dr. Isabeau Volhardt,
L.AC. of University of Washington, and Dr. Kim Taylor of
University of Cambridge in England for their convincing and extensive
revisions of my manuscript and their cordial encouragement. The English
language is also corrected by Patti J. Tobin, Justin Sattin, Barry J.
Grice, Volker Scheid, John Wm. Schiffeler, Gypsy Cole, Chao Yuang-Ling,
Liu Xun, and Sun Ming, whose enthusiastic support for this project is
admirable. The quality of the book would not have been improved without
their generous help. Being impossible to be unassailable, this book
eagerly awaits more criticism from all fields.
Huaihua, Hunan Province, China.
January 1, 2000.
Chapter 1. Introduction to The Medical Classic of the Yellow Emperor
1.1 Times of Compilation and Its Author
1.2 Components of the Book
1.3 Basic Academic Thoughts Found in the Theoretical System of The
Medical Classic of the Yellow Emperor
1.3.1 Materialist Dialectics
1.3.2 The Integral Idea that Man and Nature Are Mutually Corresponding
Chapter 2. Theory of Yin-Yang and Theory of the Five Elements
2.1 Fifth Article. Great Topic on Correspondences and Manifestations of
Yin and Yang. Plain Questions.
2.2 Fourth Article. Discussion of the True Speeches of the Golden
Cabinet. Plain Questions.
2.3 Sixth Article. Discussion of Separation and Combination of Yin and
Yang. Plain Questions.
Chapter 3. Theory of Zang-Organs and Manifestations
Zang-Organs and Fu-Organs
3.1 Ninth Article. Discussions of Zang-Organs and Manifestations
Corresponding to Six. Plain Questions.
3.2 Eighth Article. Discussion of Secret Classic in Ganoderma and Orchid
House. Plain Questions.
3.3 Eleventh Article. Discussion of Differentiations Among the Five Zang-Organs.
3.4 Fifty-fourth Article. Natural Life-Span. Divine Pivot.
3.5 Fifty-sixth Article. The Five Flavors. Divine Pivot.
3.6 Thirty-third Article. Discussion of Seas. Divine Pivot.
3.7 Second Article. Basic Points. Divine Pivot.
3.8 Twenty-ninth Article. Discussion of Greater-Yin and Bright-Yang.
3.9 Twenty-first Article. Discussion of Differentiations Among the
Channels. Plain Questions.
3.10 Seventeenth Article. Measurements of the Channels. Divine Pivot.
3.11 Eightieth Article. Discussion of Great Puzzlement. Divine Pivot.
Essence, Qi and Spirit
3.12 Thirtieth Article. Decisive Qi. Divine Pivot.
3.13 Eighteenth Article. Generation and Meeting of Nutritive Qi and
Defensive Qi. Divine Pivot.
3.14 Thirty-sixth Article. Differentiations Among Five Metabolic
Liquids. Divine Pivot.
3.15 Seventy-first Article. Dwelling of Evils. Divine Pivot.
3.16 Eighth Article. Root Spirit. Divine Pivot.
3.17 Forty-seventh Article. Root Zang-Organs. Divine Pivot.
Chapter 4. Theory of Channels and Network-Channels
4.1 Tenth Article. Channels. Divine Pivot.
4.2 Sixteenth Article. Nutritive Qi. Divine Pivot.
4.3 Seventy-eighth Article. Discussion of Nine Needles. Divine Pivot.
4.4 Fifty-first Article. Back Transport Points. Divine Pivot.
4.5 Sixtieth Article. Discussion of Holes in Bones. Plain Questions.
4.6 Thirty-eighth Article. Unfavorableness, Favorableness, Thickness,
and Thinness. Divine Pivot.
4.7 Seventeenth Article. Measurements of the Channels. Divine Pivot.
4.8 Twenty-first Article. Diseases with Chills and Fevers. Divine Pivot.
Chapter 5. Theory of Pathogens and Pathomechanisms
5.1 Third Article. Discussion of Vital-Qi Corresponding to the Heaven.
5.2 Forty-sixth Article. Five Variations. Divine Pivot.
5.3 Sixty-sixth Article. The Beginning of the Hundred Diseases. Divine
5.4 Fifty-eighth Article. Bandit Wind. Divine Pivot.
5.5 Thirty-ninth Article. Discussion of Enumeration of Pain. Plain
5.6 Seventy-fourth Article. Great Topic on Supreme Truth and Importance.
5.7 Forty-fourth Article. A Day Is Divided into Four Times in Accordance
with Heavenly Qi. Divine Pivot.
5.8 Nineteenth Article. Discussion of Jade Arcana and Genuine Zang-Organs.
Chapter 6. Diseases and Symptoms
6.1 Thirty-first Article. Discussion of Febrile Diseases. Plain
6.2 Thirty-third Article. Comment on Discussion of Febrile Diseases.
6.3 Sixty-first Article. Five Contraindications. Divine Pivot.
6.4 Thirty-eighth Article. Discussion of Cough. Plain Questions.
6.5 Thirty-ninth Article. Discussion of Enumeration of Pain. Plain
6.6 Fifty-third Article. Discussion of Pain. Divine Pivot.
6.7 Forty-second Article. Discussion of Wind Diseases. Plain Questions.
6.8 Forty-third Article. Discussion of Impediment Diseases. Plain
6.9 Twenty-seventh Article. Whole-Body Impediment Disease. Divine Pivot.
6.10 Forty-fourth Article. Discussion of Atrophy Diseases. Plain
Qi Reversal Diseases
6.11 Forty-fifth Article. Discussion of Qi Reversal Diseases. Plain
Swell and Distention
6.12 Fifty-seventh Article. Water Distention. Divine Pivot.
6.13 Sixty-first Article. Discussion of Water and Heat Points. Plain
6.14 Fourteenth Article. Discussion of Soup and Wine. Plain Questions.
6.15 Forty-seventh Article. Discussion of Strange Diseases. Plain
Madness and Mania
6.16 Twenty-second Article. Madness and Mania. Divine Pivot.
6.17 Forty-seventh Article. Discussion of Strange Diseases. Plain
6.18 Forty-sixth Article. Discussion of Symptoms. Plain Questions.
Yang Carbuncle and Yin Carbuncle
6.19 Eighty-first Article. Yang Carbuncle and Yin Carbuncle. Divine
6.20 Sixtieth Article. Jade Board. Divine Pivot.
Chapter 7. Diagnostic Methods
7.1 Eleventh Article. Discussion of Differentiations Among the Five Zang-Organs.
7.2 Seventeenth Article. Discussion of Profundity and Subtlety of Pulse
Essentials. Plain Questions.
7.3 Eighteenth Article. Discussion of Manifestations of Pulse Qi of
Healthy People. Plain Questions.
7.4 Nineteenth Article. Discussion of Jade Arcana and Genuine Zang-Organs.
7.5 Forty-ninth Article. The Five Colors. Divine Pivot.
7.6 Seventy-seventh Article. Discussion of Five Omissive Errors. Plain
Chapter 8. Therapeutic Principles and Methods
Therapeutic Principles and Methods
8.1 Seventy-fourth Article. Great Topic on Supreme Truth and Importance.
8.2 Twelfth Article. Discussion of Befitting Different Methods. Plain
8.3 Sixty-fifth Article. Discussion of Transmissions of Tip and Root
Diseases. Plain Questions.
8.4 Fifth Article. Great Topic on Correspondences and Manifestations of
Yin and Yang. Plain Questions.
Principles of Formula Prescriptions
8.5 Seventy-fourth Article. Great Topic on Supreme Truth and Importance.
8.6 Seventieth Article. Great Topic on Five Routine Rules. Plain
Chapter 9. Theory of Health Preservation
9.1 First Article. Discussion of Heavenly Truth in Ancient Times. Plain
9.2 Second Article. Great Topic on Adjusting Spirit According to Qi of
the Four Seasons. Plain Questions.
1. The Chinese Equivalents for Some Important Terms in the Book
2. The Chinese Comparison of the Original Articles of The Medical
Classic of the Yellow Emperor
3. The Illustrations of Some Important Channels
to The Medical Classic Of The
The Medical Classic of the Yellow Emperor is one of the earliest books
found in the corpus of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). It enunciates
the systematic structure of the theoretical system of TCM and reflects
the theoretical principles and academic thoughts associated with it.
This theoretical system has formed the basis for development of TCM
since its establishment. Nearly all academic thoughts of many well-known
medical masters and medical schools appearing during the history of TCM
have grown out of the theoretical system of The Medical Classic of the
Yellow Emperor. Consequently, it is one of the basic theoretical
curriculums of TCM today.
All medical theories come from practice and, in turn, direct practice.
Throughout the millennia, the great contributions by TCM to ensure the
well-being of Chinese people depended on the theoretical system of The
Medical Classic of the Yellow Emperor. Therefore, it received lavish
attention from medical practitioners throughout Chinese history and was
venerated as an ancestral work of physicians, not to mention being a
compulsory classical work in TCM.
Times of Compilation and Its Author
Many historians and physicians throughout Chinese history studied and
verified that the major contents of The Medical Classic of the Yellow
Emperor had appeared in the Warring States (475 BC - 221 BC). It had
been added during the Qin Dynasty (221 BC - 206 BC) and Han Dynasty (206
BC - 220 AD), and had been compiled to the public at the early time of
the Western-han Dynasty (206 BC - 24 AD).
The Yellow Emperor is the legendary first ancestor of the Chinese
nation, and many Chinese people are proud of being regarded as his
offspring. Many Chinese living in earlier times ascribed all their
culture to him. This book was titled with his name in order to lead it
to fame and authority. The academic divergence of thoughts in this book
sufficiently indicates that it is neither a work of a single individual,
nor medical achievement of a certain period or a local region, but
rather the summarization of experiences of many medical practitioners
over a long time.
Components of the Book
The currently universal version of The Medical Classic of the Yellow
Emperor encompasses two parts, the Plain Questions and Divine Pivot.
Each part has eighty-one articles. Thus, the book is composed of one
hundred and sixty-two articles.
Basic Academic Thoughts Found in the Theoretical System of The Medical
Classic of the Yellow Emperor
The compilation of The Medical Classic of the Yellow Emperor established
the unique theoretical system of TCM, and formed the basis for the
development of TCM. According to the development regularity of medicines
and the inference from the theoretical contents of The Medical Classic
of the Yellow Emperor, this distinct system is based on anatomical
knowledge, and directed by ancient philosophical thoughts. It was
produced after long observation of life's phenomena, and proved
repeatedly through medical practice. It developed gradually to form from
perceptual cognition to rational knowledge and from scraps to
comprehensiveness. Therefore, the theoretical system described in this
work is under the guidance of ancient plain materialist dialectics,
combining with the regularity of human life's activities. This system
also presents a lot of significant theoretical principles and academic
thoughts. They are also ideological ways that we must master when we
study The Medical Classic of the Yellow Emperor. This theoretical system
has two typical features, i.e., plain materialist dialectics and
integral idea that man and nature are mutually corresponding.
1.3.1 Plain Materialist Dialectics
a. The "essential qi" is the source of the generation and
formation of everything. The ancient Chinese philosophers regarded that
the source of the cosmos was the essential qi. Everything in the world
was produced by the essential qi, namely, original qi. The qi is an
invisible materialistic element that forms everything. Of course, the
"everything" also encompasses the human beings. Man is endowed
with the essential qi from nature, and it is called qi, essential qi,
vital qi, or original qi. The concept of qi permeated the medical field.
Thus, the idea that everything consists of qi is inevitably shown in The
Medical Classic of the Yellow Emperor. The qi is not only the basic
material that forms the body, but also the dynamic power of the body.
The life's activities of human beings are the manifestations of
movements of the qi. Different combinations of the qi may generate
different things. So, according to different places and different
functioning of the qi, different names of qi are determined, such as
true qi, ancestral qi, nutritive qi, defensive qi, liver qi, spleen qi,
heart qi, etc.
b. The materialism is highlighted. Prevailed the theories of yin-yang
and the five elements in plain materialist dialectics, which were used
to explain the changes of nature in the Spring and Autumn Period (770 BC
- 476 BC) and Warring States Period (475 BC - 221 BC). It let more
people become suspicious of the religious superstitions toward gods and
ghosts. Life science was led to the realm of materialism.
c. The proposition that life is antagonistic and united is prominent.
Not only the body's structures but also life's activities are
antagonistic and united, and too are man and nature. Everything has its
two antagonistic and united sides, i.e., yin and yang. The antagonistic
and united movements of the yin and yang push everything to develop
forward incessantly, originating birth and death of everything.
d. Life is undergoing constant flux all the time. The Medical Classic of
the Yellow Emperor regards the entity of nature, living things and
diseases as not being motionless and still, but incessantly moving,
developing and changing under the mutual actions of the yin and yang.
Consequently, we should analyze and treat a disease with the idea of
movement. This is the theoretical reference to syndrome identification
and treatment determination in TCM.
1.3.2 The Integral Idea that Man and Nature Are Mutually Corresponding
Man and nature are mutually corresponding. This is a unique feature of
TCM that differs from almost all other world medicines. TCM regards the
physiological processes and pathological changes of human beings are
closely related to nature. Many things involved are put into
correspondences organically, such as the waxing and waning of the yin
and yang of nature; the five elements that constitute the world, i.e.,
wood, fire, soil, metal and water; the running of the sun and moon and
stars. The climatic changes of spring, summer, autumn and winter; the
spring generation, summer growth, autumn harvest, and winter storage;
the human functional system in which the five zang-organs are the chief
body, and such things, are linked up as well. The occultness and the
intrinsic links of both the universe and human beings are incredibly
1.4 Chapter Sorting
The Medical Classic of the Yellow Emperor was compiled over two thousand
years ago. The language used in this book is archaic and laconic, and
its expressions are gracious, far-reaching, and abstruse. The time when
it was written is very distant. The book was copied again and again by
hand. In ancient times people wrote on bamboo slips which were then tied
together. Over the years the binding would sometimes fall apart and the
slips would smudge or break. Therefore, pieces of the original text
might become mixed up, incomprehensible or incomplete. This history
gives us some difficulty in trying to study The Medical Classic of the
In this book, all the contents of The Medical Classic of the Yellow
Emperor are arranged in eight chapters, except for
"acupuncture" and "five movements and six climatic qi."
The eight chapters are respectively the yin-yang and the five elements,
zang-organs and manifestations, channels and network-channels, pathogens
and pathomechanisms, diseases and symptoms, diagnostic methods,
therapeutic principles and methods, and
so much for your concern and reading!